ISSN : 2241-4665
Σύντομη βιογραφία του συγγραφέα
Κριτικές του άρθρου
ISSN : 2241-4665
Ημερομηνία έκδοσης: Αθήνα 22 Ιουνίου 2018
Prescolar Education Teacher
Το παιχνίδι αποτελεί την βασική δραστηριότητα του παιδιού και «σημαδεύει» όλη την ύπαρξή του. Τα παιδιά καταναλώνουν την μεγαλύτερη ενέργειά τους στο παιχνίδι, ατομικό είτε σε ομάδες. Τα παιχνίδια είναι σύνολο ενεργειών που αποσκοπούν στην απόλαυση και την αναψυχή και μπορούν επίσης να χρησιμοποιηθούν για εκπαιδευτικούς σκοπούς σε ελεγχόμενο και οργανωμένο περιβάλλον. Προκειμένου τα παιδαγωγικά παιχνίδια, να αποφέρουν το μέγιστο όφελος στην ανάπτυξη των παιδιών, είναι απαραίτητο να βρεθεί η σωστή φόρμουλα για την ένταξή τους στην ευρύτερη εκπαιδευτική διαδικασία.
Playing is the central activity of the child and it marks his/her whole existence. Children dedicate most of their energy for playing, either alone or with others. Games are sets of actions that are meant to bring enjoyment and recreation and they can also be used for instructive purposes in controlled and organized environments. In order for didactic games to bring the greatest benefit to children’s development it is necessary to find the right solution for their integration into the larger educational process.
During play, children receive opportunities for social interaction with peers and adults. They learn the importance of social rules and how playing may help them to get along with others. Children learn to express and control their emotions and resolve possible conflicts by using these social interactions. A didactic game is that type of game that has specific educational purposes and it can be used in children’s education, more usually in kindergarten and for preschool ages. Each of these games provides learning experiences and serves the greater purpose of consolidating information about surrounding reality. “It may take place in a classroom, gym, playground or outdoors. It has its own rules, and requires constant supervision and final assessment. It is meant for both individuals and groups of pupils, while the role of a pedagogic leader has a wide scope: from a main organizer up to an observer”. By playing, children are provided with opportunities for social interaction with peers. Children learn the importance of social rules and how to get along with others through play. It is during this social interaction that children learn to express and control their emotions and to resolve conflicts with others.
The main issue implied by the technology and methodology of didactic games is the requirement to create the most effective fusion of all its main elements, such as: the content, the rules, the educational task, the actions and the purpose. Neglecting one of these aspects may lead to an undesirable change from one attractive activity to one usual activity. Therefore, all the game elements must be carefully chosen and arranged and they must follow the overall theme of learning, so that children’s attention can be caught and maintained throughout the game’s length.
Regarding the game’s content, for each game we identify the didactic task. This is transposed into specific problems that children must solve independently or by cooperating with others. In these conditions, their joint interest expands greatly. Newer problems must be still accessible to children and they should require new investigation efforts, while also keeping the interest much alive. Even when we discuss repeating or verifying certain knowledge, this knowledge will not be taken by the game in the shape and size in which the knowledge was previously transmitted, but with a larger scope - by using different variants of the game, we intend to reactivate not just memory, but also most importantly the thinking process (operations capacity of association flexibility, fluidity).
In practice, if the possibilities of the children are underappreciated and the given tasks are too simple, or if we overrate their possibilities and give to them difficult tasks then the results can be negative. Those tasks that are too easy will make children used to easy work, which could later lead to apathy, laziness, or even to a passive thought process. However, if the tasks are overwhelming, children could lose their confidence in their own abilities and cease to gain interest for intellectual activities.
The rules of the game are also very important, because they establish the conduct and actions of the children and they have a predetermined and obligatory nature for the participants. Choosing the rules is made depend on the particular structure of the selected didactic game. Generally speaking, the rules indicate how the children will participate in the game and how can we evaluate their results.
The rules represent the main element of organization of the didactic game and they demand the child to interact and behave in a certain way. Children must be aware of these rules, remember them, wait for a specific signal and only then act accordingly. Sometimes they also have to refrain from another idea or behavior that has no part in the game, while having to execute some required actions. This situation requires a greater level of discipline from the children, by determining them to solve the didactic tasks with speed and accuracy.
Maintaining children's attention during the didactic game is realized through the creation of emotional dispositions, surprises, guessing tasks, competition scenarios and through game acts. In a didactic game, one or several playful actions can be introduced, but their number or variety does not automatically mean that our objective will be completed. What really matters is to create a sound correlation between these playful and fun actions on one side and the didactic tasks on the other side. Adding a game approach to a didactic activity can provide a more attractive and interesting feeling, brings diversity and excitement and also prevents the installation of monotony, fatigue or boredom.
The didactic material has a special role in solving intellectual problems and it has to be attractive, diverse and especially sufficient. Depending on the didactic material used, retaking, completing or even organizing new games can be suggested. Organizing the games with didactic material may require careful planning or even the existence of a special supply of resources, such as: tables and boards made by the teacher, toys, board games, other printed pictures or documents, chips etc.
In practice, the didactic game can be seen under several types:
- As a way of specifically organizing the learning activities in order to gather new knowledge and also to evaluate knowledge individually or in the group;
- As a procedure during the larger learning activities, focused on consolidating the new material;
- As part of a learning activity;
Judging by their content, the didactic games can be classified as follows:
- Lexical/Linguistic/Literary games;
- Arithmetical/Mathematical games;
- Geographical/Environmental games;
- Musical/Artistic games;
- Sports-related games.
So, as a first conclusion, a didactic game is an activity that is different from other activities with similar content because of its specific structure, its unity between the didactic tasks and the playing activity, and its nature of fun time that stays fully embraced.
Regardless of the way it gets applied, we observe from practice that these didactic games create for children a context for independent actions, stimulating active participation and intellectual engagement, by requesting them to create connections between object, to discover causes, effects and so on. Didactic games ensure an efficient learning process, because children are directly involved in solving problems through their personal efforts. Teacher’s participation and indications are necessary as the children get more and more immersed into the games, not just to provide guidance over the sphere of action, but also for assessment, encouragement and other types of assistance.
Organizing and conducting didactic games may have different purposes depending on the age of the group. For instance, younger preschoolers may play these games mostly for object identification and understanding basic meanings, while those children closer to the first year of school can participate in these activities for consolidating knowledge or evaluating certain learned content.
Given the overall efficiency of implementing didactic games for psychological development, positive influences are noticed not only on the level of intellectual development, but also on the general scale of personality; children are introduced to some degree of effort required for the next steps in learning and for a successful adaptation to the school environment.
The collaboration between the main instances of education (kindergarten, school and also family) is vital for the success of the integration. The kindergarten environment supports future school activities and its main purpose remains the overall preparation of the children for school years and more specifically, for organized and rigorous learning. Didactic games represent a very effective method of such preparation.
When the preschooler makes the transition to school years, play becomes secondary, and a radical change in the life of the child takes place. All the organized learning activities from the kindergarten period have prepared the pupil to sustain schooling activity during classes.
The dominant role that playing used to have in the child's life and development is slowly but surely put into second place, while learning becomes the central activity. Later on, working will take the time place of learning in this whole scheme of main activities of one's life. Practice has proven that chronologically and naturally the laws of human development follow this path, from playing to learning, and then to working.
Passing from one dominant activity to another is done gradually over time, so it is not something that happens all of a sudden. On the contrary, the coexistence of two activities that are harmoniously combined will lead to an easier jump from one step to the other.
Didactic games create a way for passing from playing to learning as the dominant activity in the life of a child, and these games are used with great success together with the rest of the much diversified class activities. This is similar to the way students make the transition from learning in school to working, by attending practice courses and programs. Schools must continue the process of instruction and learning that begins in kindergarten, in order to follow the main goal of education as a whole – that is, continuously preparing children for life in general. Therefore, preparing children for school years depends on the formation of several school related skills during kindergarten, especially in the last year before moving to school. Also, the continuation of some activities like didactic games and logical games will help children react to the increasing exigencies of the school environment.
One of the main goals of mathematics in general is to teach students how to logically use reason, which is one capacity that can be transferred to other disciplines and to so many other activities unrelated to school. Some concepts known to be fundamental in mathematics (sets or relations for instance) can be implied in common knowledge of children. Progressively, this knowledge will generate the foundations for various notions. In kindergarten, children must be guided in their activities with concrete objects and also for recognizing and understanding logical patterns of the games they play, therefore making the first steps towards a rational thought processing.
Modern mathematics has an influence in all the domains that request rational thought. Therefore, a key educational activity in kindergarten’s mathematics is to start this process of training children into the qualities of rational thought. By doing so, the kindergarten environment integrates itself into the larger, uniform framework which is the teaching of school mathematics.
The fundamental and immediate goal of math-related activities in kindergarten is to prepared children for understanding and assimilating mathematical content from the first school year, which could represent, for instance, creating some intellectual capacities that allow the 6 or 7 year olds to consciously perceive the number as a collective expression of a sum of objects, understanding how the series of numbers are formed, completing simple operations of addition and subtraction or analyzing the characteristics of geometrical shapes.
We can indicate two main objectives of math-related activities in kindergarten:
- Preparing children for building the concept of natural number and introducing the series of numbers from 1 to 10;
- Developing logical thought processing of the children.
Preschool teachers have the task to make children understand the notion of a number as a symbol for equivalent sets, and later on, to understand how that number can be composed or decomposed. In kindergarten, math games are also used for other objectives except learning per se. These games can be useful for evaluating children’s knowledge and intellectual accomplishments or with the purpose of developing logical thought, but all these games must be preceded by at least one main activity of teaching numbers. So, math games will get the task to repeat in a new and attractive way what was previously explained and shown. Through didactic games, children are getting opportunities to independently solve problems, and to use their own direct efforts in order to gain some skills and knowledge which will later become the basis for acquiring specific mathematical knowledge.
In some of these games, children have the possibility to count certain quantities (the number of birds in the tree, the flowers in the garden), to discover the number of counted objects, to establish the place of each object in a succession (answering questions like “Which truck is loaded?” with a number, such as “The third”), to make connections between numbers and respective quantities (for instance, rolling a dice and stacking as many chips as the dice number says). Other games may give children the chance to compare numbers, or to discover equality or inequality between two sets of objects (like finding a number of objects greater than the teacher’s).
A didactic game can be organized as an independent activity in which all children in the kindergarten class can be involved, or it can be used as part of a frontal, supervised activity. In the first case, the theme, the content and the tasks of these games may be found in the kindergarten educational activities schedule. When they are used as an integral part of a fontal activity, games facilitate the reiteration of certain content in a more attractive way.
- They relate to only one aspect of the content;
- They create a problem / scenario that must be possible to solve by all children in the group;
- They specify what exactly must children do consciously during their activity in order to complete the specific objective;
- They provide training for the thought processes in earlier stages of development: analysis, synthesis, comparison, abstraction etc.;
- They offer different paths of assessing children’s skills and knowledge in the field of mathematics.
The connection between the didactic task and the game’s actions is made through the establishment of a set of game rules. Each math game has at least these two rules:
- The first one translates the didactic task into a concrete action, transforming the exercise into a playing situation and bringing a contribution to the stimulation of children’s cognitive processes and to their overall intellectual education;
- The second one has an organizing role and it establishes when does a game’s action have to start and when to end, and also sets the order of all these actions.
Even with the element of attractiveness on their side, math games cannot be effective if the mathematical language used is not adequate, close to the understanding of all children. Considering that this type of language has many abstract ideas and concepts, there are always some difficulties of learning, especially in the beginning. All the respective notions and concepts must, first of all, be understood by children in a broader and more “friendly” language environment, relevant to the age level of the group. After this step, the ideas and notions can be introduces in the current language, which enriches itself with new words, concept, ideas etc.
Mathematical games help children to think more actively, to make analogies, to bring discipline to their activities, while using, perhaps surprisingly, just simple problems and exercises. Younger preschool children get familiarized with new skills and knowledge to group objects, or to express and indicate special relations between them. As children get older and closer to school years, the game types develop as well into new requirements, such as gathering some sets of objects by following some criteria, comparing them and appreciating the quantities, forming pairs and counting them etc. In the final year before entering school, practicing these math games intends the deeper understanding of the numbers and basic calculating skills.
By its nature, a language represents a system of organized signs which are determined by the supreme purpose of human communication. Children get accustomed with the language’s features intuitively, when they are old enough to form the basic communication abilities. Their learning is based on spontaneous acquisitions from pre-kindergarten years, while preschool education describe the stage for acquiring linguistic performance, thanks to social integration.
Most language related activities during preschool years focus on the phonetic dimension, because preschoolers have to be aware of the sounds that create spoken language and their differences. Regarding grammar structure and developing expressiveness, these areas can also be explored in other types of daily activities.
Because they are attractive and accessible to children, didactic games for language training offer them the best possibility to internalize new notions and the basic elements of grammar structure, through the transition from simple sentences to more complex ones – the ones that require elaborating logical relevance between notions. Knowing the level of speech development at preschool age, teachers must first of all follow the training of the practical part of language, helping children to handle various expression rapports.
Didactic games for educating oral communication and expression may be conducted in different forms, such as:
- Games of composition, that feature a series of images that are used as support for creating dialogue;
- Games that focus on forming sentences and knowing their components;
- Games of word recognition, as a basis for forming sentences;
- Games for anticipating sounds and syllables.
A preschooler does not learn grammar rules, doesn’t know definitions, or the nature of nouns and verbs for instance, because he learns to speak by following the “speaking models” of others. If the child interacts with people who don’t speak the language correctly, this creates a negative influence that cannot be easily corrected. Therefore, speaking exercises are very important throughout the whole preschool period. During these years, children are familiarized with the simple sentence and in order to understand the notion of a sentence, examples must be provided. Preschoolers start creating sentences based on images, followed by objects in the environment, and then they create them freely.
Using children’s experiences, a few grammar categories can be foreshadowed using didactic games that require naming objects, establishing some traits for these objects or their actions (these words and notions will be later found in the areas of nouns, verbs or adjectives). Other games may introduce children to correct expression, requiring them to fill a sentence using a specific word. Each child must correctly pronounce the sounds and words that compose the sentences, and they also have to show promptness in thinking and to develop creative imagination.
Knowing the environment represents, for preschool education, a key matter determined by the necessity to show them the world they live in, and to bring them information about different aspects of the environment for the greater goal of expanding their knowledge and developing their intellectual capacities.
Both theory and practice have shown didactic games to be effective as a contributor to the creation of an intellectual and moral profile of the future pupils. For discovering the environment in a safe and organized manner, children have the possibility to have direct contact with their surroundings, and with the help of the preschool teacher they learn how to observe these facts. The teacher helps them to perceive differences, to focus on special features of a certain object or being and to memorize what they discover. This systematic guidance leads to the formation of an observational availability and to increased interest towards discovering anything new that may come in the children’s way. This is a warranty for successfully solving the didactic games for knowing the environment.
The didactic task of these games require preschoolers to undergo a considerable intellectual effort, for establishing relations, sorting, deducting, comparing and even for abstraction or generalization. During these games, children have an opportunity to operate with different concepts and to apply them in real-life scenarios made possible through the game’s actions. The surrounding world must appear into the child’s conscience as a circle determined by concrete phenomena, a circle that constantly gets larger as he discovers observable connections between objects and facts.
Considering the content and the objectives, games for discovering the environment may be classified as follows:
- Games for verifying knowledge about the human being (body parts, objects for personal use, clothing, food, furniture, toys etc.);
- Games for consolidating knowledge about human activities (work at kindergarten, basic professions, travel vehicles and others);
- Games for consolidating knowledge about nature (plants, animals, birds, seasons etc.);
- Games for bonding representations about time (the moments of the day, the daily kindergarten schedule and so on).
At preschool age, didactic games may be used successfully for developing children’s interest in overall knowledge and science, which thus becomes a psychological background for training skills and gaining information. When planning these games, one must follow the necessity of establishing a connection with other common activities. As the child acquires greater knowledge and information in a certain domain, he gets more chances to apply what he learns using his own filters.
The activities for knowing the environment don’t have just the purpose to discover the immediate reality, but also to familiarize children with scientific notions and concepts. Observing plants and animals, or the changes during the four seasons are good ways to accomplish this. Explaining scientific elements, the cause of some phenomena, the differences between Earth areas etc. help children understand that nature is in continuous movement, development and transformation. By noticing there are changes in the weather during the four seasons or that water can become solid, preschooler may start to understand the connections between various natural elements, which will later become the basis for school activities that have the general name of “science”. Direct contact with reality is always very effective when it comes to attract and maintain children’s attention for a longer time.
From the multitude of didactic games for knowing the environment, teachers can choose and make use of the ones that will show results not just for developing and consolidating knowledge related to this specific type of activity, but also for influencing the further development of children’s cognitive processes and language. That way, preschoolers can adapt to the school activities and requirements more easily.
As a general conclusion, didactic games are never just an alternative to the classical teaching scenarios. They are necessary tools for providing the best learning experiences for the very young, and their role is greater at preschool ages. These games follow rules and focus on children’s natural activities, being relatable, easy to understand and follow but still, not without an intellectual challenge. Main domains such as mathematics, communication and natural environment can be gradually uncovered by future pupils through didactic games that will grant them not just more information and knowledge, but also opportunities to develop and maintain a set of problem-solving skills.
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2. Bocoș, M., Răduț-Taciu, R., Stan, C (2017). Dicționar praxiologic pedagogic. Pitești, Paralela 45
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© Copyright-VIPAPHARM. All rights reserved
 Salkind, N. (2002). Child development. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, p.310.
 Průcha, J., Walterová, E. and Mareš, J. (2013). Pedagogical Dictionary. Prague: Portál.
 Răduţ-Taciu, R., Cîmpean, A. and Răduţ-Taciu, I. (2004). Pedagogia jocului. Cluj-Napoca: Casa Cărţii de Ştiinţă.
 Ministerul Educației. (1979). Dicționar de pedagogie. București: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică
 Damşa, I., Toma-Damşa, M. and Ivănuş, Z. (1999). Dezvoltarea vorbirii în grădiniţa de copii şi în clasele I şi a II-a. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică, p.61.
 Bocoș, M., Răduț-Taciu, R., Stan, C (2017). Dicționar praxiologic pedagogic. Pitești, Paralela 45, p. 261
 Boca-Miron, E., Chichişan, E., Bardea-Ştefan, A., Câmpean, E. and Copaci, M. (2002). Documentar metodic pentru ativităţile de educare a limbajului la preşcolari. Bucharest: V & I Integral, p.35.
 Sussman, K. (2018). The importance of play in the preschool classroom. [online] Ucy.ac.cy. Available at: https://www.ucy.ac.cy/nursery/documents/ThemaVdomadas/the_importance_of_play.pdf [Accessed 28 Jan. 2018].
 Bocoș, M., Răduț-Taciu, R., Stan, C (2017). Dicționar praxiologic pedagogic. Pitești, Paralela 45, p. 261
 Vankus, P. (2013). Didactic games in mathematics. Bratislava, Comenius University, p. 48
 Maheshwari, M. (2017). Importance of play school in child development. International Journal of Scientific Research and Management, 5(06), pp.5419-5427.
 Stan, C., (2000), Autoevaluarea şi evaluarea didactică, Editura Presa Universitară Clujeană, Cluj-Napoca, p. 133.
 Sion, G. (2003). Psihologia vârstelor. Bucureşti: Editura Fundaţiei „România de Mâine”, pp.119-120.
 Verza, E. (1993). Psihologia vârstelor. București: Editura Hyperion, pp. 120-128.
 Cerghit, I. (1976). Metode de învățămînt. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică, pp.165-166.
 Potolea, D., Manolescu, M. (2006). Teoria și Metodologia Curriculumului. București: Ministerul Educației și Cercetării.
 Bocoș, M., Răduț-Taciu, R., Stan, C (2017). Dicționar praxiologic pedagogic. Pitești, Paralela 45, p. 268
 Cross, C., Woods, T. and Schweingruber, H. (2009). Mathematics learning in early childhood. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
 Nicolae Păuşescu, A.. (2012). Jocul didactic matematic în învăţământul preşcolar. Râmnicu-Vâlcea: Nova Didact, p.23.
 Santrock, J. (2017). Educational Psychology. 5th ed. N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Education, pp. 378-379.
 Cerghit, I. (1976). Metode de învățămînt. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică, pp.171-173.
 Booker, G. (2000): The Maths Game. Using Instructional Games to Teach Mathematics. Wellington, NZCER.
 Onslow, B. (1990): Overcoming conceptual obstacles: The qualified use of game. School Science and Mathematics, 90 (7), 1990, pp. 581–592.
 Popescu-Neveanu, P. (1978). Dicționar de Psihologie. București: Editura Albatros, pp. 415-417.
 Verza, E. (1993). Psihologia vârstelor. București: Editura Hyperion, pp. 84-85.
 Verza. E. (1983). Disgrafia și terapia ei. București: Editura Didactică și Pedagogică, pp. 13-17.
 Kent, R. (2005). Speech Development. Cambridge Encyclopedia of Child Development. NY: Cambridge University Press.
 Ministerul Educației, Cercetării și Tineretulu (2008). Curriculum pentru învățământul primar și preșcolar (3-6/7 ani). București, p. 21
 Varzari, E. and Taiban, M. (1971). Metodica cunoașterii mediului înconjurător şi a dezvoltării vorbirii în grădinițele de copii. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică.