Σύντομη βιογραφία του συγγραφέα
Η ΗΓΕΣΙΑ ΜΕΣΑ ΣΤΟ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΟ ΔΗΜΟΣΙΟ ΣΧΟΛΕΙΟ
Συγγραφέας: Ν. Σταφύλης / Εκπαιδευτικός 1ο Γυμνασίου Κοζάνης
Stafylis / Teacher in 1o
Σκοπός Η εργασία αυτή έχει ως στόχο να διερευνήσει την αποτελεσματική ηγεσία στα δημόσια σχολεία της δευτεροβάθμιας εκπαίδευσης. Η συγκεκριμένη έρευνα βασίζεται στη θεωρία του Hoy και Miskel (1996) μέσω της οποίας γίνεται μια τρισδιάστατη προσέγγιση στο συγκεκριμένο θέμα. Πρώτον, εστιάζει σε ορισμένα χαρακτηριστικά της προσωπικότητάς του ηγέτη τα οποία επηρεάζουν την απόδοση των εργαζομένων στην εργασία τους. (Yukl, 1989? Μιχόπουλος, 1998). Δεύτερον, εστιάζει στους τρόπους με τους οποίους οι ηγέτες προσπαθούν να ενισχύσουν την απόδοση του προσωπικού (και το Χονγκ Hartog, 2007? Howard, 1995). Τρίτον, η έρευνα εξετάζει τις διαπροσωπικές και τις διοικητικές ικανότητες των ηγετών (Barnett και McCormick, 2003?. Leithwood et al, 2006).
Σχεδιασμός / μεθοδολογία / προσέγγιση Η
έρευνα ακολουθεί μια ποιοτική προσέγγιση και είναι μια μελέτη περίπτωσης. Με
άλλα λόγια, η έρευνα έχει συγκεντρώσει 19 ημι-δομημένες συνεντεύξεις και η κάθε
μία από αυτές αποτελείται από 22 ερωτήσεις. Ειδικότερα, όλες οι συνεντεύξεις
εφαρμόστηκαν σε δύο δημόσια σχολεία της δευτεροβάθμιας εκπαίδευσης, στη
Θεσσαλία και Δυτική Μακεδονία, Λάρισα και
Κοζάνη, αντίστοιχα. Οι συνεντεύξεις έγιναν στους διευθυντές των δύο
σχολείων, στους αναπληρωτές διευθυντές καθώς και στους εκπαιδευτικούς
διαφορετικών επιστημών, φύλου και κουλτούρας.
Αποτελέσματα Τα ευρήματα της έρευνας έδειξαν ότι, οι ηγέτες πρέπει να εφαρμόζουν δημοκρατικές διαδικασίες και στυλ διοίκησης και να είναι σε θέση να αξιολογούν τις επαγγελματικές και προσωπικές ανάγκες των εκπαιδευτικών.
Ο ηγέτης ως προσωπικότητα πρέπει να χαρακτηρίζεται από αυτοπεποίθηση, να είναι ακέραιος ως χαρακτήρας και να διαθέτει την ανάλογη εμπειρία. Επιπλέον, η έρευνα υποστηρίζει ότι, οι ηγέτες ενισχύουν το έργο των εκπαιδευτικών όταν τους ενθαρρύνουν να συμμετέχουν στις αποφάσεις που λαμβάνονται λειτουργώντας σε ένα πλαίσιο δικαιοσύνης, ευγένειας και σεβασμού σε όλη την λειτουργία του σχολείου. Επίσης, η απόδοση των εκπαιδευτικών αυξάνεται όταν του ανατίθενται καθήκοντα και ρόλοι και τους προσφέρονται οικονομικά και ηθικά κίνητρα. Τέλος, η έρευνα σχετικά με τις δεξιότητες των ηγετών έδειξε ότι θα πρέπει να γνωρίζουν τη νομοθεσία που διέπει την εκπαίδευση.
Συμπεράσματα Από την έρευνα συμπεραίνεται ότι οι σχολικοί ηγέτες διαθέτοντας τα απαραίτητα χαρακτηριστικά και εφαρμόζοντας κατάλληλες πολιτικές και πρακτικές διοίκησης έχουν τη δυνατότητα να παρακινήσουν τους εκπαιδευτικούς για μεγαλύτερη απόδοση στο εκπαιδευτικό τους έργο.
Purpose -This paper aims to explore leadership of Greek secondary public schools. In particularly, the study counts on the theory of Hoy and Miskel (1996). Thus, leaders are investigated following a three dimensional approach. Firstly, it is pointed certain characteristics of their personality which affect employees' work (Yukl, 1989; Michopoulos, 1998). Secondly, it is shown ways that, the leaders attempt to stimulate performance of staff (Hong and Hartog, 2007; Howard, 1995). Thirdly, the research addresses interpersonal and administrative skills of leaders (Barnett and McCormick, 2003; Leithwood et al., 2006).
follows a qualitative approach. In particularly, it is a case-study
investigation. In other words, the research has collected 19 semi-structured
interviews which, each one of them consisted of 22 questions. In particular,
all interviews are implemented within two secondary public schools in Thessaly
Findings -The findings of the research shown that leaders and teachers agree to follow a democratic approach to leadership and should be able to consider teachers' professional and personal needs. Leaders' personality is based on their confidence, integrity and, most importantly, experience. In addition, the research supports that, leaders stimulate the work of teachers involving them in their decisions underlining values of justice, fairness, courtesy and respect throughout the educational process. Also, headmasters reinforce teachers' performance assigning tasks and offering financial and moral incentives. Lastly, the research elaborates the skills of leaders. They should understand the legal and ethical issues which are included in an educational situation.
Conclusions As a result, it is argued that, leaders possessing the aforesaid abilities and applying suitable politic they can motivate teachers to effectively perform their work.
It is a
general assumption that public education in
Each leader has a different leadership according to his/her characteristics and the policies which he or she wishes to apply in order to have the desired results for an effective school. In each case “strong educational leadership” is one of the basic characteristics of an effective school which is supported by Hofman et.al, (2001).
More specifically, leadership
practices and policies relate to mission, communication with internal
environment (teachers, students etc) and external environment (parents,
authorities, and institutions), staff empowerment and supporting and motivation
(Osseo-Asare, A., 2005). It has been shown in practice that a leader should
possess a framework of abilities, principles and values on which to build
political leadership and general decisions regarding the operation of the
school. Cicmil and Kekale (1997) in their exploratory study of management
practices in primary schools in
One point that fails, the current leadership of the school is the communication gap between leader and teachers as well as lack of supporting and inciting them. Leaders need to be aware of the fact that leadership in schools is based on relationships with individuals. Through these relationships a leader is able to establish her/his leadership and encourage teachers to apply their abilities, skills and efforts towards specific goals. Cicmil and Kekale (1997), support that the success of the change initiative depends on the motivation of individuals. Therefore, effective motivation relates to individual’s wish for autonomy and need for structure (Chemers, 2001). Judge et.al (1997) support that giving employees’ operational autonomy encourages an innovative culture.
In each case, it is required democratic decision-making, respect to personality and opinion of his colleague, combination of the different views and enhancement of the effectiveness of the leader΄s communication skills. It is shown in practice that collective decisions have great chances of being made, while authoritarianism is an obstacle to initiating and stimulating the group. Additionally, participatory leadership is better than a dictatorial as well as the open administration is much more effective than a closed system and creating, encouraging and empowering environment is better than to create an environment characterized by fears (Michael, 2004).
Finally, the current educational reality is influenced by the general economic crisis and the changes in the political leadership of the Ministry of Education does not help to establish clear educational goals, fair competition between schools, teachers, and pupils to achieve the best results.
1.1 NEED FOR THE STUDY
The sharp criticism for public schools in recent years and especially for the teaching staff and lack of efficiency in their work raises the urgent need to explore school leadership policies that will help even a little to solve the problem.
This research is investigating to type of Leadership and specific practices, which should be implemented by the school leader in order to motivate teachers and in general to increase efficiency and effectiveness in educational work.
The findings of this investigation are essentially two. On the one hand, those engaged in the administration will pursue in the future in secondary schools to know about policies and leadership practices as well as which characteristics should leaders have, leading to an effective administration in the school. The second recipient is the fact that makers of educational policy directions should make their decisions on the organization and administration of schools and the selection of strains, applying them in practice.
1.2 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
There is a
general assumption, based on the available literature, that school leadership
plays a key role in school effectiveness. The purpose of my research is to
determine the manner in which a leader-manager of secondary school may exercise
leadership effectively. This is shown through a qualitative research based on
views and attitudes of teachers and leaders in specifically schools of
secondary education in different regions in
The results will enhance the existing knowledge in educational leadership in the 21st century and will inform teachers and head teachers for an effective leadership.
1.2.1 Research questions
This objective of research is carried out answering the following research questions:
-what policies and practices must be applied in the context of school leadership?
-what characteristics should a school leader have?
1.3 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
is focused on two schools in the region of Thessaly and
On the other hand, interview as data collection method is quite time consuming and tedious for those colleagues who responded to questions because they both wasted their free time.
another limitation of the research was that respondents gave the same answers
to different questions or avoided some questions to find answers or in rare
cases they do not want to be very specific. Nevertheless, the response of
teachers interviewed were very positive and showed satisfying aspects of
teaching in higher percentage of teachers employed in secondary education in
2.1 QUALATIVE APPROACH
of this assignment is to explore the type of leadership which is applied to
schools of secondary education in
This study is an exploratory research, qualitative approach and primary data collection through semi-structure interviews. According to Woods (1999) qualitative studies seek to explore through the views of participants in research, understanding of events, interpreting such behavior while opposed to quantitative studies that seek numeric data in the cause-effect relationship. This choice of qualitative research gave emphasis on an in-depth exploration of attitudes, perceptions and experiences of managers, Deputy Directors and teachers in schools. So, face to face nineteen (19) interviews ten men and nine women have been taken by Directors, assistant Director and teachers of the two schools, in order to cover all the aspects relating to the subject.
In face to face interviews according to Saunders et.al (2009e), researcher has the opportunity to see the non-verbal behavior of participant which may affect interpretation of how to pursue a particular line of questioning as well as, the researcher has the opportunity to develop an individual level of rapport with each participant. Furthermore, the researcher can develop more complex questions providing appropriate explanations. But at the same time such as Kotler & Keller (2006) note, personal interview is the most expensive method and requires administrative planning and supervision.
2.2 DATA COLLECTION / ANALYSIS
research has been applied in Larissa in a General high school and in a high
school in region of Kozani. The sample consisted of nineteen (19) interviewees
who were chosen in random and concluded
teachers from different science fields, different ages, and many years of
educational experience, men and women (ten men and nine women). Interviews took
place in October and November in
Firstly, data was summarized and then categorized in group. In this way, the meaning is condensed from a large amount of text into fewer words. This was done by using the method of coding; the writer evaluated the answer given by separating data in “N-vivo” data and in “Descriptive” data (Hague et.al, 2004). So the main and most important information was drawn and categorized in themes according to theory of Hoy and Miskel (1996).
3. RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSION
The findings are grouped into three categories relating to personality of the leader, the political and practical motivation of workers, the typical and essential qualifications (Theory Hoy & Miskel, 1996)
So, characteristics of leaders’ personality and more especially characteristics such as fairness, consistency and openness must characterize the personality of the leader as well as confidence and cooperation, are basics components of the leadership. Additionally, hard work, determination, vision and integrity of the leader are essential prerequisites for the application of an effective leadership. Moos, L., & Kofod K., K., (2009), Robertson, J., (2005), Sarros J.et.al. (2006).
Generally, the basic findings
relating to ways that the leadership of the school could follow in order
motivate teachers and the whole school staff for more interesting work and
dedication, are focused on two points. Firstly, the leader must show the “good
example” in order to be imitated from the others, and secondly, the leader must
be fair to all parties involved in the school community. Dinham (2005).
Especially, all the stimulating efforts are focused on recognition and
providing moral and financial reward. Besides, communication, discussion and
cooperation among stakeholders’ parties to identify collective and individual
needs of staff is necessary, in the
basis of satisfaction needs. On the other hand appropriate supporting,
teamworking, setting objectives,
feedback, encouragement to participate in decision-making and educational
initiatives should be basic direction of stimulating work leaders. Mulford B.,
et.al, (2008), Chen J.C., (2005),
On the other hand according to all the teachers, in order to implement all the above leadership policies, there must be a democratic leadership style which will create a positive climate at school. The views of the teachers concede that, the positive climate is created by justice, fairness, teamwork, cooperation, democracy, feedback and incentives. While, at the same time teachers support that in case of conflicts between teachers they are resolved through dialogue, low profile, law enforcement and justice.
However, personality and stimulating work should be combined with necessary leader’s skills. Research findings showed that, in general, a leader has innate leadership skills that can be improved by gaining experience and knowledge, Rausch, E., et.al, (2001). More specifically, the school leader has formal (qualifications) and non-formal (essential) skills, qualifications relating to studies on management and new technologies, work experience more than twenty years and age more than fifty years Khaleelee & Woolf (1996). The non-formal skills are associated with robust personality, sociability, leadership skills such as organizational, resolute, fair, consistent, visionary, diplomat, simple and affordable, sociability etc.
Moreover, effective leadership is influenced by the indoor environment (teachers, students, etc.) and the external environment (parents, players, etc.) and the organizational framework of the school and its particularities, (Conger, 1999). Specifically, relating to school framework leader plays a double role. On the one hand, he/she is an administrative agent and on the other hand, an educator. This means that he/she should be more sensitive than leaders in others sectors. On the other hand, in the context of present school framework the failure application of legislation and the low level of students are basic weaknesses of the schools and prevent any effort for effective leadership. More generally, the majority of teachers argue that a decentralized education system would be a more positive effect on motivation of staff than an existing centralized education system.
Additionally, the existing procedures for selecting and evaluating of directors as provided by the current institutional framework are directly related to the selection of appropriate leaders in the school. The evaluation of the leadership of the school, according to teachers, should be done from the same teachers, supervisors, students, parents and school counselors based on their proper functioning of the school, the cooperation of the teachers' association, the participation in school curricula as well as, the student progress and achievement of objectives, Barnett, K., & McCormick J., (2003), Leskiw & Singh (2007).
Finally, the proposals to upgrade the educational role of school leadership focuses on the increasing of responsibilities for potential initiatives within and outside the school environment as well as material and technical supporting to their work.
3.2 Recommendations for further research
The results from this study led to important findings concerning the form of school leadership should be applied in schools, the features of the personality of the school leader as well as the elements to improve the organizational framework in which the school operates. These findings provide a real picture which cannot lead to generalizations because of the limited number of subjects and also all variables affecting the form of exercising leadership are not taken into account.
This research effort would be better if even some other parameters were investigated by the views of teachers, students and parents, local community and government of schools. The expectation and the challenge is that this research will provide an opportunity to experiment with other researchers and to explore other aspects of school leadership. It may formulate new questions like: which is the best political leadership? E.g. incentives support, etc., or which organizational framework supports better leadership? Or, which are their educational needs and methods for training leaders? Or how the teachers support leadership? etc. The results of these survey could be used by makers of educational policy to improve the effectiveness of leadership. In a world where everything changes rapidly, research is a prerequisite for the pursuit of knowledge and truth, in order to cover the need for answers to new questions.
3.3 Comparison to other researches
Most of the research is focused on leadership in organizations rather than the school site and secondly, they do not take into account other factors related to social, political and economic environment. According to the existing research, leaders of schools follow directional leadership as the leader explains what is expected from their subordinates, giving specific directions and planning. (House & Mitchell, 1974).
In Greek school leadership lacking to participatory management, leads to lacking of the meaningful participation in decision making as well as lacking in the motivation and the enthusiasm of teachers for efficiency and effectiveness because of indifference, inaction and controversy between the teachers. Consequently, great importance to the implementation of leadership as demonstrated by other studies and is confirmed by this study, is collaboration between leader and internal and external environment of the school. (Osseo-Asare, A., 2005). On the other hand, studies and the present study confirm that main characteristics of a leader should be responsibility, ability for cooperation, knowledge in all issues relating to management skills and interpersonal skills, and integrity of the leader’s character. Cicmil and Kekale, (1997), Analoui F. & Hosseini M., (2001).
Relating to policies of the leadership, a lot of studies agree that important elements of the political leadership are the motivation of teachers, meeting the needs and encouraging them and supporting their every step with appropriate incentives and innovative initiatives. Also, setting common goals and vision by creating a positive work atmosphere and by acting collectively rather than individually, Barnett and McCormick, (2003), Chemers, (2001), Michael, (2004), Brown A. (2005). Furthermore, all investigations agree that the effectiveness is based on teamwork, on values, democratic processes of the school in respect of individuality, equal opportunities for education initiatives and evaluation of staff in order to have feedback (Moller, J., 2005).
Besides, the organizational framework significantly affects the effective leadership. (Conger, 1999).
The difference between this study and previous studies, is that, this research explores and focuses on the policies and practices of a leadership in a school environment with large and small number of teachers and students, in a centralized educational system and different geographical and social-economic environments in order to investigate the applied form of school leadership.
The school leader has greater authority and responsibility of ordinary teachers and therefore he/she has the right-duty to guide and motivate teachers to take voluntary decisions and actions. Because of his/her role, the leader is able to improve the functioning of the school or disrupt. He or she is the linker between upper department of education and teachers, who are the key players in education. The position requires from him or her to act as a leader that, on the one hand it means that he/she must apply the appropriate political leadership and on the other hand, to have suitable leadership characteristics in order to be able to support this position.
The findings of the research answer the initial questions about the form of leadership that should be exercised in secondary schools as well as the characteristics of the leader. Also, they confirm most research results from other researches in Greek and abroad. Furthermore, a comparison of research with the existing research in this field, will identify research gaps which may be filled by new surveys.
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A. Policies - school leadership practices
1. What management style do you think is the best in education?
2. What values and principles must serve a director at the school?
3. What are the criteria for the effectiveness of policies and management practices which followed by the school director?
5. Which policies and practices on the part of the director can create a positive climate in the school as a lever for smooth and efficient operation?
6. What are your goals?
7. What is the strategy for those? (Specific actions)
8. How could the school leadership practices to meet the different needs of teachers?
10. What practice should be followed by the leader in cases of conflicts and disputes between the director and teachers or between teachers?
B. Characteristics manager-leader
11. What should be the attitude and conduct a secondary school director as a leader?
12. What typical qualifications should have a secondary school headmaster? (E.g. years of experience, age, qualifications, degrees, etc.)
13. What merits should have a secondary school headmaster? (Eg, personality, sociability, etc.)
14. Do you believe that school leader "born" or "done"?
C. Leadership and framework
15. What structure and organization of the educational system would you prefer? (Centralized or decentralized system) and why?
16. What factors affect the efficiency of school administration?
17. What are the specifics characteristics that the leader faces in schools?
18. What are the strengths of your school help you in your work?
19. What are the weaknesses of your school that hinder your work?
20. How should we assess the work of the school principal?
21. How should we assess the work of teachers?
22. What do you recommend to upgrade the role of leader in secondary school?
Number of teachers working in school
Number of students attending school
The school has a Director and two Deputy, It is setting in large city
The school has only a Director, It is setting in provincial city
Gender of interviewee
Ages in years
Average ages in years
Years working experience
Average years experience
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